November 1 1993 CE – The Maastricht Treaty Takes Effect, Creating the European Union

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November 1 1993 CE – The Maastricht Treaty Takes Effect, Creating the European UnionRate this post After months of negotiations and a long ratification process, the Maastricht Treaty came into force on November 1, 1993. The European Union (EU), featuring a central bank and deeper military alliances, created closer ties than had ever existed before, organizing previous entities under one umbrella in a far more streamlined fashion. The roots of the EU date to the period after World War II. Two major conflicts within just 20 years of each other, fueled in large part by nationalist fervor, had left some leaders wondering if emphasizing the ties that bound the continent […]

November 2 1917 CE – The Balfour Declaration Offers British Support to a Jewish Nation in Palestine

November 2 1917 CE – The Balfour Declaration Offers British Support to a Jewish Nation in PalestineRate this post *Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons In a bid to shore up support in its fight against the German and Austro-Hungarian armies, the British government issued a bold statement with long-ranging consequences on November 2, 1917: according to the Balfour Declaration, “His Majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.” Nearly a century later, the decision still echoes in Middle East conflict. In the two decades or so before Europe plunged into World War I, a variety of influences shaped ideas toward the “Jewish […]

November 3 1957 CE – Sputnik 2 Carries the First Living Animal Into Space

November 3 1957 CE – Sputnik 2 Carries the First Living Animal Into SpaceRate this post *Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons Just 30 days after sending the first manmade object into orbit, the Soviet Union made a second leap ahead of the United States in the space race by sending a living creature into the skies on November 3, 1957. A 13-pound terrier, Laika, became the first lifeform to leave Earth for the final frontier. Aiming to demonstrate the advances of Soviet technology, the USSR surprised the planet when it put Sputnik 1 in orbit at the beginning of October 1957. With the spherical satellite passing overhead every 96 minutes, a […]

November 4 1922 CE – Howard Carter Locates the Entrance to the Tomb of King Tutankhamun

November 4 1922 CE – Howard Carter Locates the Entrance to the Tomb of King TutankhamunRate this post *Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons More than 30 years after he first set foot in Egypt, archaeologist Howard Carter made the discovery of a lifetime on November 4, 1922: he and his team had uncovered a staircase leading to KV62, the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Of the 63 burial chambers found in the Valley of the Kings, Carter’s discovery remains the best preserved example of the ornate decoration style created by the Egyptians for their buried pharaohs. Carter made his first trip to Egypt in 1891, at the tender age of 17. Joining […]

November 5 1831 CE – Nat Turner is Sentenced to Death

November 5 1831 CE – Nat Turner is Sentenced to DeathRate this post *Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons Six weeks after leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history, Nat Turner was convicted of “making insurrection” and sentenced to death on November 5, 1831. In the wake of the uprising, some in the young nation championed the antislavery cause with renewed vigor while others looked for ways to ensure blacks could be further controlled. Turner grew up in Southampton County, on the farm of Benjamin Turner in southeastern Virginia. Regarded by many as having an exceptionally sharp mind, he learned to read as a young boy and developed a deep […]

November 6 1975 CE – The Green March Sends 350,000 Moroccans into Western Sahara

November 6 1975 CE – The Green March Sends 350,000 Moroccans into Western SaharaRate this post *Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons On the northwest coast of Africa, a unique demonstration against European colonialism took place on November 6, 1975: 350,000 people gathered near the border of their home country, Morocco, to walk peacefully into the Spanish-occupied territory to the south. The Green March, so named for the color associated with Islam, was a coordinated attempt by the Moroccan leadership to reclaim Western Sahara, which had been annexed by Spain in 1884. Opposition to the presence of European administration in the Spanish Province of Sahara gained momentum during the 1950s. The Polisario […]

November 7 1879 CE – Marxist Revolutionary Leon Trotsky is Born

November 7 1879 CE – Marxist Revolutionary Leon Trotsky is BornRate this post *Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons In a tiny Ukrainian village, far from the glamorous capital of the Russian Empire, St. Petersburg, a legendary figure in the October Revolution was born on November 7, 1879. The fifth of eight children, Leon Trotsky — actually named Lev Davidovich Bronshtein — would go on to become one of the most influential men in the rise of the Bolsheviks and during the early years after the establishment of the Soviet Union. Growing up on a successful farm, Trotsky was fortunate enough to be enrolled in school in the port city of Odessa […]

November 8 1895 CE – Wilhelm Rontgen Accidentally Discovers the X-ray

November 8 1895 CE – Wilhelm Rontgen Accidentally Discovers the X-rayRate this post *Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons One of the most important discoveries in history occurred on November 8, 1895 at the University of Wurzburg in Germany: Wilhelm Rontgen, a physics professor, was conducting a series of experiments with electricity and stumbled upon radioactive qualities a screen across the room — it glowed after he pushed a current through a vacuum tube. Thinking he might have discovered a new type of light, he dubbed them X-rays and spent the next several days living in his laboratory to determine their properties. Born in Amsterdam, Rontgen experienced difficulty getting into college — […]

November 9 1938 CE – Kristallnacht — “The Night of Broken Glass” — Occurs in Germany and Parts of Austria

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November 9 1938 CE – Kristallnacht — “The Night of Broken Glass” — Occurs in Germany and Parts of AustriaRate this post After more than five years of creating laws designed to weaken the Jewish community and spreading propaganda to raise suspicion, the Nazi leadership in Germany took advantage of an opportunity to seize on public resentment with Kristallnacht. “The Night of Broken Glass” — literally “crystal night” — on November 9, 1938 resulted in 91 deaths, the imprisonment of 30,000 Jews, wide destruction of property and the seizure of vast amounts of wealth by Nazi operatives. More than anything, the pogrom signalled a new, more aggressive stage in hostility […]

November 10 1659 CE – Chattarapati Shivaji Maharaj Begins the Maratha Empire at the Battle of Pratapgad

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November 10 1659 CE – Chattarapati Shivaji Maharaj Begins the Maratha Empire at the Battle of PratapgadRate this post The history of western India took a new turn on November 10, 1659: the Battle of Pratapgad shifted the balance of power in the region away from the Adilshahi and paved the way for Maratha rule for generations to come. As King Chattarapati Shivaji drove his troops to defeat the forces of Afzal Khan, he managed to do more than decimate the enemy army and gain new territory — he avenged the death of his brother, Sambhaji. Khan began his campaign against Shivaji early in the summer of 1659, destroying temples […]