On February 22, 1997, scientists in Scotland announced the birth of Dolly the sheep, the world’s first successfully cloned mammal. Dolly was actually born on July 5, 1996, but her birth was revealed in February 1997 and raised controversy. However, its supporters heralded Dolly’s birth as one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs. Dolly was created at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh from an adult cell and was named after singer and actress Dolly Parton. Dolly, who was mated to another sheep David, gave birth to four lambs. By January 2002, Dolly began to have complication such as arthritis in her hind legs and on February 14, 2003, at the age of six, was put down as she was suffering from progressive lung disease.
WHAT HAPPENED ON - 22 February
On February, 22, 1371, Robert II became King of Scotland and the first Stuart king. Robert II was born in 1316 to the 6th High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart, and to Marjorie Bruce. Marjorie was the daughter of Robert the Bruce (Robert I), the King of Scotland, who had secured Scottish independence from England and his first wife Isabella of Mar. Robert II became the King of Scots in 1371 and reigned to his death in 1390. He took on the last name ‘Stewart’ thus establishing the House of Stewart (Gallicized to House of Stuart). The Stuart monarchs ruled England between 1603 and 1714 (James I to Queen Anne). They did not turn out to be successful, since the staunch monarchical legacy of Scotland turned out to be incompatible with the fine-tuned democratic thought of England.
During the reign of Robert I, the question of the heir apparent became an urgent one. Robert’s brother, Edward of Bruce, was deemed the heir to the throne of Scotland while he was alive. Edward, however, was killed in battle by Sir John de Bermingham in a battle near Dundalk (Ireland) in 1318. The vacuum created by Edward’s death would have been filled by Robert II, and indeed the Scottish Parliament had decreed that Marjorie’s son would be the heir to the throne. On March 5, 1924, however, a son was born to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. This child, David, now became the heir presumptive. …(Read more)
In the early years of the 20th century, Teddy Roosevelt, the President of the United States and former Assistant Secretary of the Navy, sought to raise the military profile of his nation. Near the end of his time in office, he had an idea: send US ships out on a worldwide expedition. Following 14-months at sea with stops on every continent but Antarctica, the Great White Fleet — so named for its trademark “peacetime white” paint scheme — arrived at Hampton Roads, Virginia on February 22, 1909.
A little more than ten years before, the US gained a vast amount of influence throughout the Caribbean and Southeast Asia after the Spanish-American War. Taking advantage of the Monroe Doctrine, a policy laid out in 1823 by President James Monroe that guaranteed the US would prevent further colonial expansion into the Western Hemisphere by European nations, the US military engaged the armies of Spain in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
Roosevelt, a fervent supporter of American involvement, particularly in Cuba, resigned his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy and joined the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry. Second-in-command of these “Rough Riders,” he and his men played a role in victories at Las Guasimas, San Juan Hill and Santiago. Returning to his home of New York state as a hero, not least due to an adept use of the press for his benefit, Roosevelt found his confidence in the strategic importance of the Navy he helped oversee proved. In his own mind — and, indeed, that of modern historians — the US announced is strength to potential adversaries with its performance in the four-month battle against Spain. …(Read more)